East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh <p><strong>Journal Sponsorship</strong></p> <p>The East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (EAJSSH) is sponsored by Haramaya University</p> <p><strong>Publisher</strong></p> <p>The East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (EAJSSH) is published by Haramaya University</p> <p><strong>Journal History</strong></p> <p>East African Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities was started in 2016 by the College of Social Sciences and Humanities of Haramaya University to enhance exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities.</p> en-US editor@eajsh.haramayajournals.org (Editorial Team) eajssheditorialoffice@gmail.com (Birhanu Midakso (Editorial Manager)) Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Some Notes on the Past of Oromo Society: The Story about Akkoo Manooyyee in Focus https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/498 <p>This article aims to shed light on the past of Oromo society through the assessment and analysis of some oral traditions, particularly the story about Akkoo Manooyyee. The research that resulted in this article was a mix of historical, anthropological, and sociological research that was undertaken in the last five years. Descriptive and narrative research designs and a qualitative research approach were employed in the study. Data were collected from well-informed and knowledgeable informants from different parts of Oromia. In addition to oral data, relevant written sources were also consulted and used to augment the oral data. The findings of the research indicate that Oromo society had possibly been a matriarchal society for a considerable period in ancient or prehistoric times before the gradual evolution of the patriarchal system. During this matriarchal period, women seem to have been dominant socially, economically, and politically in society. It seems that Oromo society was ruled initially by women and later on by men before the gradual evolution of the Oromo <em>Gadaa</em> system some 5000 or more years ago.</p> Gutema Imana Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/498 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Understanding Quality: Examining Addis Ababa University Students’ Conceptualizations through the Harvey and Green (1993) Quality Framework https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/525 <p>As elusive and contentious as the term quality is, according to Harvey and Green (1993), there are five ways of thinking about quality in higher education that are framed as exception, as perfection, as fitness for purpose, as value for money, and as transformation. Interpretations of quality in higher education vary depending on stakeholders’ views. Among the different stakeholders, the purpose of this study was to examine students’ conceptualizations of quality interpreted through the Harvey and Green (1993) quality framework. The study was qualitative thematic in its approach, and data were collected using feedback surveys. All the one hundred and eighty five first year graduate students, who were attending their coursework in 13 different fields located in eight of the 10 colleges in Addis Ababa University (AAU), filled the survey. From these respondents, a total of 283 replies were collected. Data were then thematically analyzed using percentages. The findings revealed that students define quality differently, and the term means different things even for the same student. However, their conceptualizations converge mostly around the quality as fitness for purpose category (especially as customer-determined fitness), followed by quality as exceptional (especially as excellence) and quality as transformative categories. It is recommended that AAU’s quality-related effort, quality as understood by students, needs to primarily deal with refining its services and enhancing graduate employability. This has to be followed by taking care of student admission, teacher recruitment criteria, and bringing long-lasting qualitative changes on the part of students for life beyond the university.</p> Enguday Ademe Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/525 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400 The Institutionalization of Child-Friendly Bench in a Child Protection System: Practices, Perspectives and Barriers in Gimbi Town, Oromia, Ethiopia https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/534 <p>The main objective of the study was to examine the practices, and perspectives of the child friendly bench workers and barriers of child friendly bench at Western Wallaga, Gimbi town. The study employed qualitative research with case study methods as it helped get a holistic and in-depth understanding of views of the study participants. Relevant study participants were purposively selected, and thus, relevant data were gathered through in-depth interview and observation. Out of the raw data, patterns, categories or themes were built, interpreted, triangulated and thematically analyzed. It was revealed that the advent of child friendly bench was appreciated and welcomed as a result of which different child protection cases were attempted to be entertained although the implementation status was not as such satisfactory vis-à-vis the prevalence and persistence of cases. Obstructing factors, including shortage of budget, absence of capacity building trainings, limitation of commitment, lack of collaboration, shortage of facilities, and not yet treatment of cases at separate room were among the barriers of child friendly bench. Overall, child friendly bench failed to have the attributes to qualify for the task it was designed to execute although the existences of some attempts were undeniable. Hence, empathetic and concerted efforts were implied to meet the very objective of child friendly bench, which is child protection.</p> Nimonam Daraje, Taye Dida Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/534 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Lexical Enrichment in Hadiyyisa https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/540 <p>The present study attempted to describe lexical enrichment in one of the Highland East Cushitic languages, Hadiyyisa. Instructors from Wachemo University and Hossana College of Teachers Education took part in this study. The data was collected and analyzed using a qualitative methodology. The main tool for data gathering was document analysis, though key informant interviews and questionnaires were used in complementing the former. The findings showed that language-internal and external resources were extensively employed as strategies of lexical enrichment in Hadiyyisa. For lexical enrichment in the language, semantic transfer and compounding were the most common methods, whereas abbreviation and blending were less common. When it comes to language-external means, borrowing and loan translation were the most productive ways of enrichment in Hadiyyisa. Hadiyyisa did not have unmodified borrowing since the language borrowed terms with adaptations. Hadiyyisa relied on foreign languages such as English, Arabic, French, and Italian for source languages rather than Ethiopian languages, including related Cushitic languages. The majority of the European loanwords entered Hadiyyisa via Amharic, and the loan translations in Hadiyyisa came from English and Amharic as source languages. It is imperative that unnecessary borrowings should be avoided and native Hadiyya words should be substituted in relation to lexical expansion. Furthermore, standardization is in order for the observed concurrent use of loanwords and their native counterparts in Hadiyyisa.</p> Samuel Handamo Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/540 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Refugee-Host Relationship in Ethiopia: A Case of Eritrean Refugees in Tigray Region https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/542 <p>This study explores the nature of refugee-host relations in Ethiopia with particular reference to the Eritrean refugees and the hosts that are found in the Tigray regional state. To this effect, primary data were collected through interview, focus group discussion (FGD), document review, and observation; participants for the study were selected through purposive sampling technique, and the study employed a basic qualitative data analysis method. It was found out that the interaction between the two groups has been dynamic, changing from almost "closed’ and ‘antagonistic’ to ‘cordial’ type of relationship in the process, and now, this smooth relationship has been negatively impacted by and faced obstacles due to the on-going war between the Tigray regional state and the federal government. The key factors that are involved in the transformation of their relationship and the status of the refugees in the eyes of the local hosts emerge both internally from the refugees and the hosts themselves (refugees’ aspiration, cultural similarity, economic benefits of refugees, familiarity and socialization between refugees and hosts), and externally from the work of the government. The paper concludes that inter-group relationships change across time, and these changes are far from absolute as they are accompanied by continuities of some elements of past relationships.</p> Alemu Asfaw , Kalewongel Minale Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/542 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Daraba in the Lowlands of Wallagga: Dynamics in Agro-Pastoral Economic Practices, 1840-1985 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/563 <p><em>Daraba</em>, an agro-pastoral economic activity, was practiced on a broad scale in lowland areas of Wallagga, Western Ethiopia. The lowlands, including the Angar-Didessa, Gibe, Wama, Finca’a, Dabus, Birbir, and others, were centers for complementary grazing, <em>hora</em> (saltlick), swidden cultivation, and food gathering. This article deals with historical trends in the practice of herding livestock and swidden cultivation in these river valleys. Beginning in the early 19<sup>th</sup> century, <em>daraba</em> practice steadily declined owing to changes in land use and rights of access to lowland resources, such as grazing land and <em>hora</em>. The agents of these changes were the local rulers, including <em>abba-qoros</em>, and the state. The process negatively affected the livestock economy in general and herders’ livelihoods in particular. Evidence for the study came from reports of travellers, documents on state farms, and settlement programs as well as oral accounts. By employing this evidence, the study tries to demonstrate that the agro-pastoral practices in the lowlands were intimately associated with the scope of farmers’ access to valley land and the availability of pertinent resources there. This study argues that resource control and land use changes denied the rights of farmers’ access to the resources and profoundly discouraged agro-pastoralism in favour of modern cultivation and sedentarization. Nevertheless, a land use policy that considers the preservation of saltlicks and grazing areas in the lowlands could mitigate the declining livestock economy.</p> Dereje Hinew Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/563 Tue, 13 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400 A Critical Analysis of Michel Foucault’s Historical Analysis of Power: Can he avoid the goods of freedom and truth? https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/568 <p>Michel Foucault argues that no notions of truth lie outside of systems of power. The methodology of the study is restricted to philosophical analysis and reflection based on two of Foucault’s major works, <em>Discipline and Punish, </em>and <em>History of Sexuality</em>, <em>Vol. I</em>. For Foucault, modern power is a pervasive and ubiquitous phenomenon that cannot be avoided by rational agents. He thinks that the modern power operates, unlike the old system of power which manifests itself through the physical infliction of pain on a subject, in a more insidious way through discourses which again operates under the guise of science. In other words, there is no truth that can be defended against systems of power. But, we shall argue that Foucault cannot consistently defend this position. And the significance of the study is to show that that there are implicit notions of the good and truth in Foucault’s historical analysis and thus he commits a performative contradiction. The results and discussions of the study merely focused on articulating the relevance of philosophy to our everyday life and we shall conclude that such goal cannot be achieved without the presupposition of truth.</p> Getahun Dana, Bekele Gutema Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/568 Wed, 14 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Rethinking the Role of Traditional Institutions to Building Lasting Peace in Africa: Lessons Learned from Somaliland, Horn of Africa https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/571 <p>The African traditional governance institutions had faced serious challenges by the arrival of European colonial powers that undermined the existing local institutions. The colonial powers weakened local institutions and introduced their own top-down governance system. Thus, the aim of this study is to revitalize the African traditional institutions to build sustainable peace and democracy in the Horn of Africa considering the Somaliland bottom-up peacebuilding experience. In this study, qualitative research method was used while the data were collected through document analysis. For this article, the discourse data analysis method was used. The findings of this study revealed that revitalizing traditional institutions have potential value in peace building process. Hence, internally designed bottom-up peace building process was able to create relatively a peaceful and stable Somaliland state in Horn Africa. Besides, a hybrid governance system which integrated both traditional and modern governance institutions used as a vital tool for lasting peace and promoting democracy in Somaliland. Furthermore, the participation and high respect for local elders in peace building process has played a crucial role in creating sable society. Finally, based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that any stakeholders, either politicians or policy makers, should recognize women’s role in peace building process, revise the educational system to incorporate traditional knowledge with modern one, open more political spaces so that competent parties can engage with alternative thought and win-win peace building approach while interacting with external actors.</p> Endale Mulatu Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/571 Wed, 14 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400 A History of Southern Sudan Refugees in Gambella, Ethiopia: From 1955 –2000 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/592 <p>Ethiopia has a long tradition of accommodating refugees. The refugees from Southern Sudan were among the accommodated groups due to the destructive civil war since 1955. However, the experience of those refugees has not been a researched theme. Therefore, there is a need to reconstruct the history of southern Sudanese refugees in Gambella, Ethiopia from 1955 to 2000. This study is historical research in design. The sources were archival documents, informants selected using purposive sampling, and secondary literature. The data from these sources were exploited using narrative analysis. It is a type of analysis that connects events, actions, and experiences and arranges them chronologically. Evidence from these sources indicated that Southern Sudanese refugees arrived in Gambella in two phases. The first phase was started in 1955 due to the conflict between Anya Nya rebels and the government. Those refugees established both camp and self-settlement among local populations. They were supported by international organizations and the Ethiopian government. At that time, refugees had peaceful interaction with the host communities. Nevertheless, after the 1972 peace agreement between rebels and Sudanese government, many refugees were repatriated from Gambella, and some established permanent settlements. The revived conflict in the 1980s resulted in the second phase of refugees’ influx into Gambella. In this phase, refugees were accompanied by the militant group known as the Southern Sudanese Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA). The arrival of SPLA had consequences in the interaction of the host community and refugees. Generally, the study discloses the Ethiopian experience of accommodating refuges.</p> Shimels Ayele Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/592 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400 Socio-economic Effects of Large-Scale Plantation on Local Community: The Case of Arjo-Didessa Sugar Factory, Western Ethiopia https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/604 <p>Large-scale agricultural activities have a serious impact on local economic development, incomes and the environment. This study was conducted in Arjo-Didessa Sugar Factory with the objective of examining the socio-economic effects of large-scale plantation on local community. To carry out this research, qualitative and quantitative methods (mixed method approach) were employed. Descriptive research design was used for detailed description of the effects of the factory on the local community. Data were collected from household survey through questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussions and observation with all concerned household heads, government officials, factory officials and local elders. A sample of 186 was obtained from households via systematic random sampling technique. Respondents were selected purposively for focus group discussion and interview based on their long years of existence in the area. Quantitative data were analysed through descriptive statistics whereas as qualitative data via text analysis. The finding revealed that the factory has given inadequate consideration to the local community. The plant has negative effects on the local economy in terms of loss of grazing land, crop land, lack of proper compensation and relocation. Besides, the expansion of the factory has had negative impacts on the economic and social life of local community. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the government needs to safeguard the interests of the local communities, and enforce the factory to allow the participation of the local community in all stages of the project to minimize socio-economic risks and compensate for the loss of their land.</p> Yadeno Hundera Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://eajsh.haramayajournals.org/index.php/eajsh/article/view/604 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 -0400